Adaptations for the Cold

They have a configuration of feathers that creates a water tight seal so that air is trapped under the feathers. The air is then heated by the body and acts like a second layer of fat.
The fist layer of fat is real fat that can be as thick as one inch in certain areas of the body. this keeps the penguin warm in times of extreme cold.
The third form of insulation is in the wings of the Penguins. they have special blood vessels called Vascular Rete, These are used to absorb heat out of the blood that is coming to the wing so that heat is conserved.

Adaptations of the Body Structures

The most noticeable and advantageous of these is the bone structure. the bones of a Penguin are significantly denser than that of any other bird on earth. They have these dense bones so that is i easier to dive, and a Emperor Penguin can dive up to 800 meters or 2642.5 feet in one breath. This is also aided by the abnormally large and efficient lungs that birds have.

Adaptations for Reproduction Penguins have to eat in large amounts to store body fat so that when their single egg comes they can take care out it. to do this the Penguin must stand for three months on the egg to keep it warm, otherwise it would freeze.